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An administrative process occurs as a continuous and connected flow of planning, management and control activities, established to achieve the use of human, technical, material and any other resources, which the organization has to perform effectively.
This set of activities is governed by certain business rules or policies whose purpose is to strengthen the efficiency in the use of these resources.
It is applied in organizations to achieve their objectives and meet their lucrative and social needs. The work of the administrators and managers in this regard is important, it is said that their performance is measured according to compliance with the administrative process.
The functions of the administrative process are the same functions of the different stages (planning, organization, direction and control) but they differ from them because they are applied to the general objectives of the organization.
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Stages of the administrative process
The administrative process is developed in different stages, known with the abbreviations of planning, organization, management and control (PODC) , these are consistent and are repeated for each objective determined by the organization or company.
Usually, these stages are grouped into two phases, which are:
Mechanical phase : Planning What should be done? and Organization How should it be done? This establishes what is going to be done and provides a structure to do it.
Dynamic phase : Direction How is it being done? and Control How was it done? The way in which the organism that has been previously structured is managed is specified.
Activities and functions of the administrative process
It is the first step to take, is to know in advance what is going to be done, the direction to follow, what you want to achieve, what to do to reach it, who, when and how you are going to do it.
For this, some steps are followed such as:
- Internal and environmental research (tools such as Porter’s 5 forces and SWOT analysis can be used ).
- Statement of purposes, strategies and policies and purposes.
- Establishment of actions to be executed in the short, medium and long term.
Students of the subject affirm that the planning includes the definition of the organizational goals, the development of a general strategy to reach those goals and the achievement of priority plans to coordinate all the activities.
Specifically, this function must be exercised by the administrative body of the company, and will provide for the objectives and goals for the company and the methods it will carry out.
Objectively, a plan is established that contains the future activities to be carried out, to be implemented with previous visualization, taking into account each feature in detail.
The most important planning activities are:
- Predefinition of objectives and goals to achieve during a certain time.
- Implement a strategy with appropriate methods and techniques to carry out.
- Anticipate and plot against possible future problems.
- Clarify, expand and determine the objectives.
- Implement working conditions.
- Select and state the tasks to be developed to meet the objectives.
- Build a general achievement plan emphasizing new ways of performing the job.
- Establish policies, methods and procedures of performance.
- Modify plans based on the result of the control.
It is the second step to take, it constitutes a set of rules to be respected within the company by all those who work there, the main function at this stage is coordination. After planning, the next step is to distribute and assign the different activities to the work groups that make up the company, allowing the equitable use of resources to create a relationship between the staff and the work to be performed.
Organizing is using the work in search of goals for the company, including setting the tasks to be performed, who is going to do them, where decisions are made and to whom they must be accountable. That is, the organization allows to know what must be done to achieve a planned purpose, dividing and coordinating activities and providing the necessary resources.
The work that is carried out here is related to the aptitudes (physical and intellectual) of each worker at the same time with the resources that the company possesses.
The main intention of the organization is to detail the objective assigned to each activity so that it meets the minimum expense and a maximum degree of satisfaction.
The most significant activities of the organization are:
- Make the detailed and detailed selection of each worker for the different positions.
- Subdivide tasks into operational units.
- Choose an administrative power for each sector.
- Provide the materials and resources to each sector.
- Concentrate operational obligations on jobs by department.
- Maintain clearly established the requirements of the position.
- Provide personal facilities and other resources.
- Adjust the organization based on the results of the control.
It is the third step to take, within it the execution of the plans, communication, motivation and supervision necessary to achieve the goals of the company is carried out. At this stage the presence of a manager with the ability to make decisions, instruct, help and direct the different work areas is necessary.
Each work group is governed by norms and measures that seek to improve its operation, the direction is to achieve through interpersonal influence that all workers contribute to the achievement of the objectives.
The address can be exercised through:
- the leadership
- The motivation
- The communication.
The most significant management activities are:
- Offer motivation to staff.
- Reward employees with salary according to their duties.
- Consider the needs of the worker.
- Maintain good communication between different labor sectors.
- Allow participation in the decision process.
- Influence workers to do their best.
- Train and develop workers to use their full physical and intellectual potential.
- Satisfy the different needs of employees by recognizing their effort at work.
- Adjust management and execution efforts according to the control results.
It is the last step that must be taken, within this the evaluation of the general development of a company is carried out, this last stage has the task of ensuring that the path that is taken, will bring it closer to success. It is an administrative task that must be exercised with professionalism and transparency.
The control of the activities carried out in the company offers an analysis of the ups and downs of them, and then based on the results make the different modifications that are feasible to be carried out to correct the perceived weaknesses and lows.
The main function of the control is to measure the results obtained, compare them with the planned results to seek continuous improvement. Therefore, this is considered a follow-up work focused on correcting the deviations that may arise with respect to the objectives set. Then contrast the planned and achieved to unleash the corrective actions that keep the system oriented towards the objectives.
The most important control activities are:
- Follow, evaluate and analyze the results obtained.
- Contrast the results against performance standards.
- Compare the results obtained with the established plans.
- Define and initiate corrective actions.
- Use effective means to measure operability.
- Communicate and participate to everyone about the means of measurement.
- Transfer detailed information that shows the variations and comparisons made.
- Suggest various corrective actions when necessary.
Importance of the administrative process
The importance of the administrative process lies in the anticipation of future events and the adequate control of resources in an orderly manner.
It is necessary that the rules, policies and activities of each process be applied effectively and in line with the objectives and goals of the company, in order to maintain the efficiency of the system and therefore the profitability and economic benefit.