Real Estate Appraisal – Definition, what it is and concept

A appraisal Real estate is a theoretical monetary value attributed to a property based on technical parameters.

These parameters follow a valuation methodology, which in many countries is established by law. In each real estate appraisal, these parameters must be argued in a report.

The real estate appraisal must be prepared by an approved professional, who can be architects, riggers or engineers. This will depend on whether the real estate to be valued is a house, a flat, a plot or an industrial building.

The most common use made of a real estate appraisal report is to acquire through mortgage credit a real estate, therefore it is also called “mortgage appraisal.” It serves as a value to the financial institution when deciding whether to grant a mortgage of one quantity or another depending on the value of the appraised asset.

What is a real estate appraisal for?

A real estate appraisal can serve us for several purposes, the most important are:

  • Obtain a mortgage loan that has the appraised asset as collateral.
  • Know a theoretical value with sufficient rigour for the adjudication of inheritances, divorces or as a starting price in auctions.
  • Achieve a technical value with a specific regulation that differentiates it from a simple orientation assessment.

It must be taken into account that the higher the appraisal figure, the greater the estimated value of the real estate. This means that there will be more margin when applying for a loan that has as warranty said property.

How is a real estate appraisal calculated?

The factors that are taken into account for a real estate appraisal combine technical and legal aspects. The main ones that determine the economic value of an appraisal are:

  1. Location: Town, neighborhood, residential area, etc.
  2. Surface: You can give two surface data in square meters, useful (not counting the space occupied by the walls) and built (sometimes including common areas of the building).
  3. Distribution: This is to list the number of rooms, toilets or patios that the house can have. It also takes into account assessing the correct use of space.
  4. State of conservation: It consists of three basic categories, renovated housing, in good condition and to reform.
  5. Used materials: Determinants when evaluating the quality of housing, conditioning for example the energy rating.
  6. Orientation: Cardinal point to which the house is directed, that is, north, east, west, south and the combinations that can be given to each other.
  7. Market price: A small investigation is made of the latest sales to know the price range in the area.

In addition, legal checks must be carried out that may limit the value of the appraisal, such as knowing if they have any type of official protection.

However, the value of a property can change over time, either by internal factors (adding improvements) or by external factors (positive-negative evolution of the environment).

Example of use in a real estate appraisal

Suppose we want to buy a house that has a sale value of around € 100,000. In turn, we want the bank to finance 100% of the sale value because we have only saved the purchase and sale expenses, such as local taxes or the real estate commission:

From here, two scenarios can be given:

  1. If the value of the appraisal is € 90,000 and the necessary mortgage loan is € 100,000, our savings in addition to paying € 15,000 of purchase and sale expenses, must pay the difference of € 10,000.
  2. If the value of the appraisal is € 100,000 or more, it will cover the amount we need.

Note that it is not usual that 100% of the purchase price is charged to the appraisal value, with the general rule being 80%. That is, if the price is € 100,000, the appraisal value must be € 125,000 since 80% of € 125,000 is the € 100,000 we would need.